The Main Areas of Destination

Africans were heavily concentrated in two areas that accounted for about 87 percent of their numbers: the Low Country of the Carolinas and Georgia, and the Tidewater region of Virginia and Maryland. The Carolinas and Georgia received more than 210,000 people, or 54.2 percent, while the Chesapeake accounted for more than 127,000 people, or 32.8 percent of all arrivals. About 28,000 people (7.0 percent) went to the area north of the Chesapeake; and the region south and west of Georgia, including Florida and Louisiana, received about 22,000 people (5.6 percent).

The African immigration to the thirteen colonies occurred in several stages, which affected each receiving area. The earliest movement was centered on the Chesapeake, with the northern colonies also receiving a substantial number of people. Some 12,000 Africans had arrived in the Chesapeake by 1700 The Chesapeake was the main destination in the following decades, with almost 13,000 people arriving in the first decade of the eighteenth century, another 9,000 in the 1710s and peaking at over 21,000 in the 1720s and 28,000 in the 1730s. Although there was a significant decline thereafter, still another 43,000 Africans landed before the American Revolution, when arrivals virtually ended. Although the northern colonies received far fewer Africans than the tidewater region of the Chesapeake, nonetheless 24,000 Africans were taken to the northern colonies between 1700 and 1776, all most all arriving after 1730.

By contrast, few Africans were brought to the Carolinas and Georgia before the 1720s. Forced immigration augmented rapidly, however, rising from 2,000 in the 1710s to almost 8,000 in the 1720s, and then increasing enormously to almost 28,000 in the 1730s, the same level as for the Chesapeake. Despite a remarkable decline in the following decade to less than 3,000, as a reaction to the 1739 Stono Rebellion in South Carolina, which had involved Africans, the number of new arrivals rebounded to almost 23,000 in the 1750s, 28,000 in the 1760s, and almost 25,000 in the 1770s.

The War of Independence notwithstanding, it totaled more than 13,000 in the 1780s and about the same in the 1790s. The final seven years of the legal trade saw the introduction of almost 67,000 African men, women, and children to the Carolinas and Georgia. Hence, contrary to the trend in the Tidewater region, Africans came later and in much larger numbers to the Carolinas and Georgia. Indeed the final immigration of Africans to this region at the very end of the legal international slave trade was substantially greater than for any other period.

The Gulf region, including Florida and Louisiana, received about 22,000 Africans in total, and these people largely came in three periods - some 6,000 arriving in the 1720s, another 2,000 in the 1770s and another 10,000 in the first two decades of the nineteenth century, despite legal abolition of the slave trade from Africa after 1808.



Africans Reaching the United States by Destination



Northern
Region

Chesapeake

Carolinas/
Georgia

Gulf Region

Unspecified

Total

Percent

1628-1630


100




100


1631-1640


0




0

-

1641-1650


0




0

-

1651-1660

434

631




1,065

0.3

1661-1670

770

1,607




2,377

0.6

1671-1680

56

2,400




2,456

0.6

1681-1690

193

2,228



133

2,554

0.7

1691-1700

1,461

5,223



0

6,684

1.7

1701-1710

96

12,809

227


0

13,132

3.4

1711-1720

823

9,022

2,225

608

0

12,678

3.3

1721-1730

709

21,586

7,851

6,385

304

36,835

9.9

1731-1740

5,724

28,373

27,859

0

222

62,178

16.0

1741-1750

5,521

12,094

2,983

222

325

21,145

5.4

1751-1760

5,139

14,590

22,856

362

0

42,947

11.1

1761-1770

5,367

12,953

28,047

327

0

46,694

12.0

1771-1780

149

3,508

24,905

2,257

0

30,819

7.9

1781-1790

0

0

13,365

829

0

14,194

3.7

1791-1800

260

0

13,085

673

371

14,389

3.7

1801-1810

337

68

66,680

5,731

157

72,973

18.8

1811-1820



95

4,190

350

4,635

1.2

1821-1830



0

91


91


1831-1840



0

0


0

-

1841-1850



0

0


0

-

1851-1860



303

110


413

0.1

Totals

27,039

127,192

210,481

21,785

1,862

388,359


Percent

7.0

32.8

54.2

5.6

0.5